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Waikato region shallow lakes management plan: Volume 2

TR 2014/59

Report: TR 2014/59

Author: T Dean-Speirs & K Neilson et al

About this report

Seventy one (71) lakes in the Waikato region are classed as ‘shallow lakes’, in that they have a maximum depth of less than 10m. More than half of these are less than 5m deep.

These lakes provide for a range of values - as habitat for native flora and fauna including taonga and game species, and also for water supply, flood control, commercial and traditional fisheries, and recreation. Shallow lakes also perform nutrient cycling and other ecosystem processes that contribute to the life supporting capacity of the wider environment.

Shallow lakes function differently to deep lakes in that their depth provides for them to be:

  • capable of supporting submerged aquatic plants over most of the lake bed as their shallow depths allow sufficient light penetration for plant growth;
  • regularly stirred up by wind and wave action which prevents long periods of thermal stratification and serves to recycle nutrients from the bottom sediments. The large interface between the lake bed and water column acts to amplify the influence of lake bed sediments
  • very susceptible to changes in hydrology due to catchment land use; and
  • more heavily impacted by invasive species.

As a result of these features, they are particularly vulnerable to deterioration, and require a specific management approach.

This Shallow Lakes Management Plan draws together information about the shallow lakes of the Waikato region, the policy framework for their management, and the associated management challenges and opportunities.

Volume I identifies objectives and high level management actions to address the key management issues for the lakes, with a specific focus on matters that WRC has responsibility for (i.e. water quality, lake water levels and biodiversity values).

Volume 2 is a complementary resource statement that summarises available information and knowledge for shallow lakes in the Waikato region and proposes key management actions for individual shallow lakes at a greater level of detail.

This plan has a term of 10 years, and will be reviewed after 3 years (in 2018).

Read or download the report

Waikato region shallow lakes management plan: Volume 2 (Shallow lakes resource statement: Current status and future management recommendations) [PDF, 2.9 MB]

1 Introduction
1.1 Shallow lake information
2 Condition of shallow lakes
2.1 Lake water quality
2.1.1 Current condition
2.1.2 Water quality trends
2.2 Shallow lake health indicators
2.2.1 Zooplankton
2.2.2 Submerged aquatic plant indicators (Lake SPI)
2.2.3 Current condition
2.3 Restoration and  management
2.3.1 Lake level setting
2.3.2 Riparian retirement and fencing
2.3.3 Enhancement of marginal  habitat
2.3.4 Pest fish control
2.3.5 Reduction of nutirent and sediment inputs
2.3.6 Access to lakes
3 Waikato peat lakes
3.1 Hamilton city
3.1.1 Lake Rotokaeo (Forest Lake)
3.1.2 Lake Rotoroa (Hamilton Lake)
3.1.3 Lake Waikwhakareke (Horseshoe Lake)
3.2 Hauraki district
3.2.1 Kopuatai Burn Pools
3.3 Matamata-Piako district
3.3.1 Leesons Pond
3.4 South Waikato district
3.4.1 Lake Okoroire
3.5 Waikato district
3.5.1 Lake Areare
3.5.2 Lake Hotoanagna
3.5.3 Lake Kainui (Lake D)
3.5.4 Lake Kaituna (Lake B)
3.5.5 Lake Komakorau (Lake C)
3.5.6 Lake Pikopiko
3.5.7 Lake Rotokaraka
3.5.8 Lake Rotokauri
3.5.9 Lake Rotokawau
3.5.10 Lake Te Kapa
3.5.11 Lake Tunawhakaheke (Lake E/Tunawhakapeko/Hurrell'sLake)
3.5.12 Lake Waiwhata
3.5.13 Lake Whakatangi (Lake A)
3.6 Waipa district
3.6.1 Lake Cameron (Lake Kareaotahi)
3.6.2 Henderson's Pond
3.6.3 Lake Koromatua
3.6.4 Lake Mangahia
3.6.5 Lake Mangakaware
3.6.6 Lake Maratoto
3.6.7 Lake Milicich
3.6.8 Lake Ngaroto
3.6.9 Lake Ngarotoiti
3.6.10 Lake Pataka
3.6.11 Lake Posa (Lake Pataka South)
3.6.12 Lake Rotomanuka (north and south)
3.6.13 Lake Rotongata
3.6.14 Rotopiko/Serpentine Lakes
3.6.15 Lake Rotopotaka
3.6.16 Lake Ruatuna
3.7 Waitomo district
3.7.1 Lake Rotokotuku (Kotukutuku)
4 Waikato riverine lakes
4.1 Hauraki district
4.1.1 Lake Patetonga
4.2 Waikato district
4.2.1 Lake Hakanoa
4.2.2 Lake Kimihia
4.2.3 Lake Kopuera (Rangiriri)
4.2.4 Lake Ohinewai
4.2.5 Lake Okowhao
4.2.6 Lake Penewaka (Penewaka Lagoon)
4.2.7 Lake Rotongaro
4.2.8 Lake Rotongaroiti
4.2.9 Te Otamanui Lagoon
4.2.10 Lake Waahi
4.2.11 Lake Waikare
4.2.12 Lake Whangape
4.2.13 Lake Opuatia (Unnamed 9)
4.3 Waipa district
4.3.1 Lake Te Koutu (also Te Ko Utu)
5 Waikato dune lakes
5.1 Otorohanga district
5.1.1 Lake Parangi
5.1.2 Lake Te Rotopupu
5.2 Waikato district
5.2.1 Lake Otamatearoa
5.2.2 Lake Parkinson (Kohahuake)
5.2.3 Lake Puketi
5.2.4 Lake Rotoiti (Little Lake)
5.2.5 Lake Unnamed 3
5.2.6 Lake Waitamoumou
5.3 Waitomo district
5.3.1 Lake Harihari
5.3.2 Lake Piopio
5.3.3 Lake Rototapu
5.3.4 The Taharoa lakes - Taharoa, Numiti and Rotoroa
6 Waikato karst lakes
6.1 Waikato district
6.1.1 Lake Disappear
6.2 Otorohanga district
6.2.1 Lake Koraha
7 Waikato volcanic lakes
7.1 Rotorua district
7.1.1 Lake Ngāhewa
7.1.2 Lake Tutaeinanga
7.2 Taupō district
7.2.1 Lake Rotopounamu
8 References